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Both theories, along with the rules set out by the Interpretation Act, instruct courts to interpret statutes according to the ordinary meaning of words. Scholars in the discipline of law do not always agree on what truly constitutes the ordinary meaning of words. Most see it as the language of the masses, the non-technical language of joe soap. As such, the ordinary meaning of words can be looked up in a dictionary. But how ordinary can words really be? Who determines the ordinariness of words?

abused to confirm premeditated opinions. As has been argued by the likes of Thumma and Kirchmeier, dictionaries may become a fortress, which on the one hand means that presiding officers may hide behind dictionary definitions and on the other hand means that dictionaries may be seen as sacrosanct. The use of dictionaries is closely related to the theories of statutory interpretation, especially textualism and intentionalism. A textualist focuses on the letter of the law. The textualist holds that the true meaning of a legal text, such as an act of parliament, should be derived from the ordinary wording ( ipsissima verba ). Only when the language of the law leads to absurd or diverse conclusions may a court go beyond that language; this is the so-called golden rule, sanctified. The intentionalist approach sees the focus moving away from the central position of language and concentrating on the intention of the legislator. In doing so, the court moves away from the golden rule and concentrates on what the legislator is trying to achieve. This intention is, nevertheless, still communicated through ordinary language.

Volgens die jutastat-peiling gebruik voorsittende beamptes in suid-Afrika verouderde en dikwels Amerikaanse woordeboeke. En hoewel daar in die meeste ondersoekte hofuitsprake verantwoordelik met woordeboeke omgegaan is, is daar ook gevalle waar voorsittende beamptes woordeboeke gebruik wat onvanpas. Uit die soektog kom dit voor asof voorsittende beamptes dikwels onbewus is van die genuanseerde verskille tussen woordeboeke en die feit dat nie alle woordeboeke vir die hantering van woordkwessies geskik is nie. Woordeboekseleksie blyk soms lukraak te geskied en die aanwending gaan nie met verantwoording gepaard nie. Ons sluit die artikel af deur twee taalkundige benaderings as alternatiewe vir woordeboeke voor te stel, byvoorbeeld die gebruik van korpusse. Trefwoorde : bedoelingsteorie, definisies, forensiese linguistiek, forensiese taalkunde, gewone betekenis van woorde, korpuslinguistiek, linguistiek, prototipeteorie, taalkunde, tekstualisme, terminologie, toevlugsoord, wetsuitleg, woordeboeke, woordeboekgebruik, woordeboekgebruik in die hof, wortlautgrenze. Abstract, a linguistic perspective on the use of dictionaries in the court: the dictionary as fortress. One of the most important functions of a court of law is to interpret statutes. The interpretation of statutes can be a difficult task, especially when a court has been given the responsibility to address words or phrases which lunch have led to disputes. The interpretation of the disputed word or phrase may even challenge the statute relevant to the issue that the specific court has to deal with.

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Opsomming, sommige kenners beweer dat woordeboeke vir talle regsgeleerdes in n toevlugsoord ontaard het, dit wil sê dat regsgeleerdes hulle baie maklik tot n woordeboek wend wanneer woorde onbekend. Woordeboeke is egter by tye onbetroubaar, verwarrend en niksseggend en lewer betekenisse buite konteks. In hierdie navorsingsverslag stel ons ondersoek in na die verskynsel van woordeboekgebruik in n hof en kyk ook kortliks na die situasie in suid-Afrika. Om die suid-Afrikaanse verskynsel beter te begryp, verken ons wetsuitlegteorieë soos die tekstualisme en die bedoelingsteorie koemelkallergie wat sterk tot woordeboekgebruik aanleiding gegee het. Dit is veral in hierdie soort teorieë waar die kwessie van n gewone betekenis van woorde ontstaan en wat by regsgeleerdes die behoefte skep om woordeboeke te gebruik. Die artikel lewer verder n oorsig van die aard en aanwending van woordeboeke, gevolg deur n bespreking van n Jutastat-soektog. Die jutastat-soektog het ten doel om die suid-Afrikaanse woordeboekgebruik voorlopig te peil.

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His wife had grown fond of him, and now she tried to calm keiko. She swam to the cliffs to gather eggs and birds for a feast to serve their guest. The brother ate little, while beckoning keiko to eat more than his share. Finally, the brother whispered to his sister, "your husband has eaten too much. Sing to him now, that he may rest." so she sang a lullaby, and keiko slept. When the whale awoke, he saw his wife was gone. He followed the boat's wake, and soon caught up to the pair on the village shore where many people arrived to stab keiko to death.

Because of this, it is believed that there is a bear within all of us and that we must come to terms with this in our lives. A seabear is part bear part Killer Whale. Known as the carpenter of the animal kingdom, and is consider the industrious one. The beaver is said to have been a woman at one time Tsimshian legends tells of this woman who dammed a stream to swim. Because she refused to get out, she was transformed and her leather apron became a beaver's tail. In haida legend it is the beaver who is responsible for providing the salmon that the raven had stolen to give back to the people.

A myth told by traditional people across the Arctic describes a totemic marriage between a woman and a beluga whale. A young maiden left her village one day searching for bird eggs, and returned with a whale skull which she wore like a hat. The spirit in the skull eventually pulled her out to sea where it turned into a beluga whale, named keiko, who made the woman his calorieen wife. The woman's brother was bound to preserve his family honor so he built a boat and sailed out to rescue her. Keiko became frightened when the boat stopped directly over his home.

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Eagle down was sprinkled before it was brought in to the tribe to display respect. In West coast culture, there are several legends telling of a chief's daughter being abducted by a bear. The high ranking woman had been out in the woods picking berries and stepped on some bear dung and began to curse out loud, insulting their cleanliness. Two bears nearby heard her and decided they would not tolerate such insolence. They felt the disrepectful woman had to be punished.

To do this, one bear transformed himself into a very handsome man who approached this woman, and seductively lured her to accompnay him to his mountain home. When she did, she fell in love with him and became partially bear-like herself. She later married him and had twin cubs. Their children were born as little creatures that resembled bears who could metamorphorse themselves into human form like their father. The woman's brothers eventually found her and, in an unequal contest, killed her husband. They returned to the village but the two bear sons did not feel comfortable and eventually left to return to the forest. All bear Clan members are descended from this woman and her two sons.

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Baskets should be handled with care - always use lunch two hands, never lift a basket by its rim and avoid using a basket's handles or knobs. Too much pressure on the basket may cause the fibers to break so be careful if you decide to use your basket for storage or other purposes. Do not attempt to wash your basket as this can only cause strain on the already tensely woven fibers and lead to warping or breakage. To clean baskets, use a soft brush to remove any dust. Beadwork is one of many mediums that have been mastered by the northwest coast and Plains Native artists. Traditionally, dentalium shells, porcupine quill and Abalone shell is used to accentuate the beadwork. Deerskin is commonly used to link chokers, watch bands, hairpieces and bolo ties, as it is highly elastic and very soft to the skin. Bear is known as the protector of the animal kingdom. In haida culture is referred to as "Elder Kinsman" and was treated like a high ranking guest when killed.

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Each pilatus tribal group of the northwest coast has its own distinctive style of basketry that utilizes different materials and techniques. Common to all styles of basketry is the lengthy process of gathering and preparing the materials to be used in the basket making. There's bark, roots, and grasses to be harvested, dried, split and perhaps dyed before the weaving process or sewing of the basket can begin. In British Columbia, the effects of pollution, land development and logging means that basket makers must now go longer distances from their homes to obtain their materials. Today, nootkas (West coast haida and Salish artists produce the most readily available basketry. The very best of contemporary baskets, as well as antique ones, are becoming collector's items. Taking care of baskets, taking care of baskets requires that they are not to be display in direct sunlight or bright artificial light. Too much light and heat will cause the basket to become dry and brittle as well as make the colors fade. Alternately, baskets should not be kept in humid conditions since mildew and dust will collect on them and fibers might stretch.

Some carvers give their work a high polish with emery cloth or other matierals which enchance the deep black qualities of the stone. Even today, argillite continues to be carved exclusively by haida artists both on the queen Charlotte Islands their homeland) and weegt in the vancouver and Victoria areas. Traditionally, baskets were made on the northwest coast for purposes such as gathering food, cooking, storage, and for hats and cradles. Later, when baskets began to be made for selling purposes, a variety of new forms were created. They included trays, miniature containers and basketry-covered bottles. For basket weavers and workers in plant materials, their legacy is in the hands-on approach to teaching the next generation. Elders of each tribe pass on the skills and traditions to their own families and communities. Although, the knowledge of weaving patterns pales in comparison to the importance of the intricacies of harvesting materials; maintaining the eco-system so no harm is done; and the techniques used for processing and storing the materials.

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Quick links search, web, store, the haida native people are renowned for their beautiful "black slate" or Argillite carvings. They began carving Argillite in response to the early curio trade of the 1820's. Soon the artistic accomplishments of the haida in the use of materials such as wood, horn and stone included this new medium. The Argillite used by haida carvers is black or grey carbonaceous shale found at Slatechuck Creek on the queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Argillite is a relatively soft stone to carve, although it's difficult to obtain large pieces from the quarries. The supply of Argillite is not in any apparent danger of being exhausted so this haida tradition of carvings will continue for many years to come. Apart from small Totem Poles, the primary objects belasting carved from Argillite include plates with incised designs, pendants, pipes, small boxes and sculptured figures.

Proper betekenis
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